• 论文
主办单位:煤炭科学研究总院有限公司、中国煤炭学会学术期刊工作委员会
黄河下游平原煤矿区采煤塌陷地治理的若干基本问题研究
  • Title

    Research on several Fundamental Issues of Coal Mining Subsidence Control in Plain Coal Mining Area of the Lower Yellow River

  • 作者

    胡振琪 袁冬竹

  • 单位

    中国矿业大学(北京)地球科学与测绘工程学院中国矿业大学环境与测绘学院

  • Organization
    School of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering,China University of Ming and Technology (Beijing); School of Environment Science and Spatial Information,China University of Ming and Technology
  • 摘要

    黄河下游流经河南和山东两省,该区域为冲积平原地貌,既是我国的粮食主产区,也是重要的煤炭基地。平原煤矿区煤炭开采最主要的生态环境问题是采煤塌陷并严重积水,造成耕地面积减少、生态环境恶化。本文以黄河下游平原煤矿区采煤塌陷地为研究对象,针对治理范围、积水机理和稳沉性分析这三大采煤塌陷地治理的基础性问题进行探讨,并研究其治理战略。研究表明:(1)采煤塌陷地治理范围是一个隐伏信息,比较难以精准确定。传统以下沉10mm的沉陷边界作为治理范围往往过大,应以塌陷对建筑物和耕地的损毁边界作为采煤塌陷地治理范围,对建筑物的损害边界以临界变形值i=3mm/m,ε=2mm/m,K=0.2mm/m2来确定,耕地损毁边界以对耕地生产力开始产生影响的临界下沉值、临界倾斜值、临界水平变形值的最小值来圈定,并提出耕地损毁临界变形值计算方法和治理范围圈定方法。(2)采煤塌陷地积水是平原矿区生态损毁的主要特征和优选治理技术的关键,它主要与地表下沉量、潜水位、气候、土壤结构和质地等因素有关,本文通过厘清塌陷后的地表与潜水位的关系,阐述了塌陷积水的机理及动态过程,并以是否积水作为土地损毁程度评价的重要标准。(3)塌陷稳定性是治理措施和时机选择的关键,本文提出了基于治理阶段性和考虑未来(周边与多煤层)开采影响的塌陷稳定性分析方法。(4)针对黄河下游平原煤矿区耕地损毁严重的问题,改变传统的“末端治理理念”和“零和博弈思维”,提出了“采煤与耕地保护协同发展战略”和“边采边复战略”,可有效保护和恢复耕地,实现煤炭开采与生态保护的协同发展。


  • Abstract

    The lower of the Yellow River Basin flows through Henan and Shandong province,and its landform is mainly alluvial plain.The area is not only the main grain-producing area in China,but also an important coal base.The major eco-environmental problem in plain coal mining area is subsidence and serious water accumulation,resulting in the decrease of cultivated land area and deterioration of the ecological environment.Taking the coal mining subsidence area in the lower Yellow River plain as the research object,the three basic problems in the control of coal mining subsidence area are discussed,such as the coverage of control,water-ponding mechanism and stability analysis,and studies on the control strategy.The research shows that:(1) The control coverage of coal mining subsidence area is a hidden information,which is difficult to identify accurately.The coverage is too large with the subsidence boundary of 10 mm.The damage boundary of subsidence buildings and cultivated land should be taken as the control coverage of coal mining subsidence.The damage to the building is usually determined by the critical deformation values (i=3 mm/m,ε=2 mm/m,K = 0.2 mm/m2),and the boundary of cultivated land damage should be delineated by the minimum of the critical vertical subsidence value,the critical tilt deformation value and the critical horizontal deformation value.The calculation method of the deformation value and the delineation method of the control coverage are put forward.(2) Water-ponding in coal mining subsidence area is the main characteristic of ecological damage in plain mining area and the key to optimize control technology.It is related to factors such as surface subsidence,groundwater level,climate,soil structure,texture and so on.The mechanism and dynamic process of water-ponding after subsidence is expounded by clarifying the relationship between surface and groundwater level.(3) The stability of the subsidence is the key to select control measures and timing.The method for analyzing the stability of subsidence is proposed based on the stage of control and considering the influence of surrounding and multi-seam mining.(4) Regarding the serious damage of cultivated land in coal mining areas in the lower reaches of the Yellow River,the traditional "end management concept" and "zero-sum game thinking" should be discarded.Therefore,"the coordinated development strategy of coal mining and cultivated land protection" and "concurrent mining and reclamation strategy" are put forward,which can effectively protect and restore the cultivated land and realize the coordinated development of coal mining and ecological protection.

  • 关键词

    黄河流域平原煤矿区采煤塌陷地积水机理治理战略

  • KeyWords

    Yellow River basin;plain coal mining area;coal mining subsidence;water-ponding mechanism;control strategy

  • 文章目录

    1 治理范围的确定

       1.1 塌陷损毁边界的定义

       1.2 耕地损毁范围获取方法

    3 塌陷稳定性分析

       3.1 采煤塌陷地沉陷稳定过程

       3.2 采煤塌陷地治理稳定性分区的方法

    4 黄河下游采煤塌陷区治理战略

       4.1 采煤与耕地保护协同发展战略

       4.2 边采边复战略

    5 结论

  • 引用格式
    胡振琪,袁冬竹.黄河下游平原煤矿区采煤塌陷地治理的若干基本问题研究[J].煤炭学报,2021,46(5):1392-1403.
    HU Zhenqi,YUAN Dongzhu.Research on several Fundamental Issues of Coal Mining Subsidence Control in Plain Coal Mining Area of the Lower Yellow River[J].Journal of China Coal Society,2021,46(5):1392-1403.
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