• 论文
主办单位:煤炭科学研究总院有限公司、中国煤炭学会学术期刊工作委员会
采空区下伏煤层水力压裂试验研究与应用
  • Title

    Experimental study and application of hydraulic fracturing in underlying coal seam

  • 作者

    陆泳鑫胡胜勇李国富武玺路佳旗杨育涛张村苏燕

  • Author

    LU Yongxin;HU Shengyong;LI Guofu;WU Xi;LU Jiaqi;YANG Yutao;ZHANG Cun;SU Yan

  • 单位

    太原理工大学 安全与应急管理工程学院晋能控股装备制造集团有限公司煤与煤层气共采国家重点实验室山西蓝焰煤层气集团有限责任公司中国矿业大学(北京) 能源与矿业学院山东电子职业技术学院

  • Organization
    College of Safety and Emergency Management Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology
    Jinneng Holding Equipment Manufacturing Group Co., Ltd.
    State Key Laboratory of Coal and CBM Co-mining
    Shanxi Lanyan Coalbed Methane Company Limited
    School of Energy and Mining Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology-Beijing
    Shandong College of Electronic Technology
  • 摘要

    采空区下伏煤层气资源储量丰富,长期未能有效开发。水力压裂技术是一种提高煤层气采收率的有效手段,上覆煤层的开采与重新压实会直接影响采空区下伏煤层水力裂缝的扩展行为。通过大尺寸(300 mm×300 mm×300 mm)真三轴水力压裂试验,分析了不同加卸载应力扰动程度下煤体的力学与声发射响应特征,提出了表征煤体损伤程度的损伤变量$T$,明晰了损伤与水力裂缝起裂与扩展规律之间的关系。结果表明:采空区下伏煤体垂向应力加载阶段引起的损伤显著大于卸载阶段,垂向加载应力不超过11 MPa时,煤体处于弹性阶段,损伤极少;加载至11~15 MPa,处于屈服阶段,损伤大幅增加;加载至15~18 MPa,处于强化阶段,煤体孔裂隙逐渐被压实。损伤变量$T$可以有效表征煤体内部损伤程度,Tc为煤体未经过加卸应力扰动时的损伤变量。$T = {T_{mathrm{c}}}$时,煤体内部的损伤程度与未经过加卸载应力扰动的煤体损伤程度相当;$ T>{T}_{{mathrm{c}}} $时,煤体呈应力损伤态,$T$越大,损伤程度越高;$ T<{T}_{{mathrm{c}}} $时,煤体呈应力压实态,$T$越小,压实程度越高。煤体应力损伤程度与破裂压力呈负相关,高损伤程度使得煤体更容易破裂,井筒近端容易形成主水力裂缝,有利于开展水力压裂。煤体的压实程度与破裂压力呈正相关,高压实程度使得水平应力差对水力裂缝扩展的影响减弱,井筒近端水力裂缝发育,不易形成主水力裂缝,阻碍水力压裂开展。基于研究成果制定了采空区下伏煤层水力压裂施工方案优化原则并在现场应用,优化后的方案水力压裂造缝能力显著提高。

  • Abstract

    The coalbed methane resource under goaf is rich, but has not been effectively developed for a long time. Hydraulic fracturing technology stands as an effective means to augment coalbed methane recovery. The extraction and re-compaction of overlying coal seam will directly affect the expansion behavior of hydraulic fractures in the underlying coal seam. Though the large-scale (300 mm×300 mm×300 mm) true triaxial hydraulic fracturing experiments, the mechanical and acoustic emission response characteristics of coal were analyzed under different levels of loading and unloading stress perturbations. The damage variable T was proposed to characterize the degree of coal damage, and the relationship between damage and the initiation and expansion patterns of hydraulic fractures was elucidated. The results revealed that, the damage induced by vertical stress loading in the underlying coal significantly exceeded that in the unloading stage. When the vertical loading stress was below 11 MPa, the coal remained in an elastic stage with minimal damage. Loading between 11~15 MPa corresponded to the yielding stage, witnessing a substantial increase in damage. Loading between 15~18 MPa led to the strengthening stage, the pores and fractures of coal were gradually compacted. Damage variables T can effectively characterize the degree of internal damage of coal. When T=Tc, the internal damage of coal was comparable to that of a coal that has not disturbed by loading and unloading stress.Tc is the damage variable of coal without loading and unloading stress disturbance. When TTc , the coal exhibited a stress-damaged state, with higher values of T corresponding to increasing damage levels. Conversely, when TTc, the coal demonstrated a stress-compacted state, with smaller values of T indicating higher compaction degrees. The degree of stress damage in coal was negatively correlated with the fracture pressure, a high degree of damage made coal more prone to fracture, and it was favor to form the primary hydraulic fractures near the wellbore, which was conducive to hydraulic fracturing. The degree of compaction of coal was positively correlated with fracture pressure. The high degree of compaction weakened the effect of horizontal stress difference on hydraulic fracture expansion, and the hydraulic fracture near the wellbore was more developed, which hindered the formation of primary hydraulic fractures. Based on the research results, the principle of hydraulic fracturing construction scheme optimization for underlying coal seam in goaf was formulated and applied in the field. The hydraulic fracturing ability of the optimized scheme was significantly improved.

  • 关键词

    采空区下伏煤层煤层气水力压裂损伤变量裂缝扩展

  • KeyWords

    goafs;underlying coal seam;coalbed methane;hydraulic fracturing;damage variable;fracture expansion

  • 基金项目(Foundation)
    中国博士后科学基金特别资助项目(2020T130389);煤与煤层气共采国家重点实验室开放基金资助项目(2022KF15)
  • DOI
  • 引用格式
    陆泳鑫,胡胜勇,李国富,等. 采空区下伏煤层水力压裂试验研究与应用[J]. 煤炭科学技术,2024,52(4):231−242.
  • Citation
    LU Yongxin,HU Shengyong,LI Guofu,et al. Experimental study and application of hydraulic fracturing in underlying coal seam[J]. Coal Science and Technology,2024,52(4):231−242.
  • 相关文章
  • 相关专题
  • 图表

    Table1

    相似模拟材料的物理力学参数
    孔隙率
    \(\phi\)/%
    渗透率
    K/10−3μm2
    单轴抗压强度
    \( \sigma_ {\mathrm{c}} \)/MPa
    弹性模量
    \( E \)/GPa
    抗拉强度
    \( \sigma _{\mathrm{t}} \)/MPa
    黏聚力
    \( c\)/MPa
    内摩擦角
    \( \varphi /( ^\circ) \)
    12.79 1.13 6.27 0.72 1.65 2.54 31.29

    Table2

    水力压裂试验方案
    试块 垂向应力
    \( {\sigma _{\mathrm{v}}} \)/MPa
    最大水平应力
    \( {\sigma _{\mathrm{H}}} \)/MPa
    最小水平应力
    \( {\sigma _{\mathrm{h}}} \)/MPa
    水力压裂
    1 8 16 10
    2 10→12→8 16 10
    3 10→14→8 16 10
    4 10→16→8 16 10
    5 10→18→8 16 10

    Table3

    水力裂缝参数
    试块 缝长a/mm 缝宽b/mm a/b 裂缝形态
    1 310.2 196.5 1.58 水平
    2 306.7 190.5 1.61 水平
    3 301.3 184.2 1.64 水平
    4 350.2 233.6 1.50 水平
    5 295.0 211.3 1.39 水平
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